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Posts Tagged ‘penguin rescue’

I’d like to start off by saying that I’m not a hater – just someone wanting to set the record straight. On June 28th, I had the great honor of speaking to an audience of 600+ local movers and shakers at the 2011 TEDxBoston conference. It was definitely one of the highlights of my career as The Penguin Lady. A few months earlier, I had received a phone call from Danielle Duplin, one of the curators of the event, inviting me to give a talk about the historic penguin rescue that took place after the Treasure oil spill in South Africa in June of 2000. As a huge fan of the TED talks, I had to restrain myself from jumping up and down and squealing like a teenaged girl who’d just been asked out by the really cute guy that she has a major crush on. (I’m not sure how successful I was – you’ll have to ask Danielle.)

Something I had not known prior to my TEDx experience, was that the curators have each presenter do a dry run of their talk with them several weeks before the event, just to be sure that everyone’s on the right track and to give each speaker constructive feedback. For those not familiar with the TED and TEDx talks, the concept behind these short, but powerful, presentations is that they’re about innovative ideas worth spreading. As my talk was about an event that had happened eleven years earlier, the curators encouraged me to connect it to something current, so that the audience would still find it relevant. I had already been touching on the BP oil spill in my public appearances over the previous fourteen months, and decided to structure my TEDxBoston talk (in part) around a controversial statement made during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. Specifically, I wanted to challenge the assertion held by some, that all oiled birds should be routinely euthanized.

Heavily oiled Laughing gull in the horrific BP oil spill in 2010. Photo by Charlie Riedel

When gut-wrenching images of oil-soaked birds in the Gulf of Mexico, like the one above, were finally released to the public during the BP oil spill, a German biologist by the name of Silvia Gaus sparked a heated debate after she was quoted in a Spiegel article saying the following; “Kill, don’t clean. According to serious studies, the middle-term survival rate of oil-soaked birds is under one percent. We, therefore, oppose cleaning birds.” And I’m sorry to say that she is not alone in making such claims. Ever since reading these words, I’ve felt compelled to inform as many people as possible that this statistic is profoundly inaccurate.

Why, you may ask, am I so certain of this? Because I had the tremendous privilege of working as rehabilitation supervisor during the rescue of nearly 40,000 African penguins following the Treasure oil spill in 2000 – an animal rescue that still stands as the largest and most successful ever undertaken; and I have seen first-hand how incredibly effective such rescue efforts can be. We managed to save 90% of the 19,000 penguins that were oiled, and 95% of the 38,500 penguins that were handled (in addition to the 19,000 oiled birds, another 19,500 unoiled penguins were moved out of the path of the rapidly approaching oil slick).

African penguins oiled in the June 23, 2000 Treasure oil spill in Cape Town, South Africa. Photo by Tony Van Dalsen, DAFF

African penguins oiled in the June 23, 2000 Treasure oil spill in Cape Town, South Africa. Photo by Tony Van Dalsen

And, in the years since the Treasure rescue, I have been in close contact with South African researchers and have read their follow-up studies, which prove that, after being rehabilitated, previously oiled penguins live just as long as their never-oiled counterparts. AND, they breed nearly as successfully – their reproductive success rate is just 11% less than that of never-oiled penguins. And it’s important to note that pelicans and gulls – the two main birds affected by the BP oil spill – have similar rates of long-term survival and reproductive success after being oiled and rehabilitated. So, truly, these rescue and rehab efforts are not only valid – they are vitally important to the future survival of these species (some of which are listed as Threatened or Endangered).

Release of cleaned and rehabilitated African penguins following the Treasure oil spill in Cape Town, South Africa. Photo by Tony Van Dalsen, DAFF
Release of cleaned and rehabilitated African penguins following the Treasure oil spill in Cape Town, South Africa. (The pink spots are a temporary dye to indicate the birds are ready for release, and to help researchers spot them on their islands.) Photo by Tony Van Dalsen, DAFF

So, why does Ms. Gaus, and the others who made statements similar to hers, believe that most oiled birds are going to die no matter what we do – and, therefore, euthanasia is the best response? It seems that most of these individuals are quoting antiquated data, and just have not bothered to read the most recent research on the subject. Apparently, Ms. Gaus worked as a rescuer during the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and it’s true that the animal rescue following that spill was not as successful as the effort that followed the Treasure oil spill. The circumstances of each oil spill are different – and the response to each spill is different as well, so the overall success rate of each effort does vary. But, disaster response protocols and rehabilitation techniques have improved dramatically in the twenty+ years since the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Because of this, the average success rate (meaning successful release and long-term survival) for oiled seabirds is currently between 50% and 80% – and it is often much higher, as evidenced by the 90% success rate we had with the Treasure rescue.

Certainly, not every oiled animal can be saved, and each one must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. It is true that some individuals will just be too ill or compromised to save, and in that case, euthanasia may indeed be the most humane and practical solution. But, every oiled animal deserves the dignity and respect of a caring response – and the opportunity for a second chance at life. Each one should be rescued and – if possible – rehabilitated, not only to ease the suffering of that individual animal, but to help ensure the future survival of that species. It is simply the right thing to do; ethically, morally and practically.

The video of my 12-minute TEDxBoston talk titled, The Great Penguin Rescue: the inspiring global response to a species in distress, is below. In it, I not only address the issue I’ve just written about; I also point out the power of one person to make a tremendous difference, and I highlight the importance of collaboration and volunteerism as well. For more information about my TEDx talk, visit the TEDxBoston website or check it out on YouTube. Here are the links: TEDxBoston and YouTube. If you agree with my key messages in this talk, please share the video with others. And, if you want to learn more about the incredible rescue of 40,000 penguins following the Treasure oil spill, my award-winning book, also titled, The Great Penguin Rescue, is available on Amazon and at other major outlets.

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The latest reports indicate that the recovery of any more oiled penguins from the islands in the Tristan da Cunha island group has probably concluded. Conservation officials on the islands have said they believe that all of the live oiled penguins have now been collected and brought to the rehabilitation center on the main island (Tristan da Cunha). This temporary rehabilitation center was constructed after supplies and staff from SANCCOB (Cape Town’s seabird rescue center) arrived on the tug, Svitzer Singapore, on April 5th. Extremely rough seas made it nearly impossible to access several of the islands over the last week or two, but now that a helicopter has arrived (as of last Tuesday on the Russian research vessel, the Ivan Papanin), they should be able to conduct more thorough surveys of the islands. The good news is that the rough seas have helped to break up the oil in the waters surrounding the islands.

Five ships at Tristan da Cunha - the most ever seen there at once. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSPB

Five ships at Tristan da Cunha - the most ever seen there at once. A helicopter is on the ship on the right, the Ivan Papanin. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSPB

Once the Svitzer Singapore arrived from Cape Town with frozen fish and cleaning supplies (including detergent, wash-tubs, degreaser, toothbrushes, hot water heaters and infrared heat lamps), the training of volunteers and cleaning of the oiled penguins could finally begin. Which was a tremendous relief. However, these birds had been coated in toxic oil for so long that they were in a very compromised state. In the past week, 1,577 of the 3,718 oiled penguins died. At this point, the exact cause of these deaths has not been released.

SANCCOB CEO Venessa Strauss spraying degreaser onto an oiled Rockhopper penguin prior to washing it. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSPB

SANCCOB CEO Venessa Strauss spraying degreaser onto an oiled Rockhopper penguin prior to washing it. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSPB

Washing a Rockhopper penguin at Tristan da Cunha. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSP

Washing a Rockhopper penguin at Tristan da Cunha. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSPB

But we do know the following from previous experience; an oiled animal will compulsively preen or groom itself (a penguin uses its beak to do this) so they ingest the toxic oil covering their bodies. This leads to dehydration, anemia (the red blood cells lyse or break down, and the birds also get bleeding ulcers), and other health issues. Eventually, this long-term exposure to the toxic oil can kill them. So, the ideal situation is to get the penguins washed as soon as possible once they have been oiled (after first giving them 24-48 hours to stabilize after being captured and transported).

But, unfortunately, due to circumstances beyond the control of the islanders and the conservation officers stationed there (and the penguin experts coming from Cape Town), the necessary supplies did not arrive until three weeks after the oil spill occurred. The hold-up was apparently on the governmental level in the UK (this island group is a British territory). We still do not have answers as to why the official response from the UK was so slow and insufficient. Had professional rescue teams (bringing necessary supplies) been allowed to go to Tristan as soon as this oil spill occurred, the lives of many more penguins would undoubtedly have been saved.

Emaciated oiled penguin rescued on March 23rd. Photo by Katrine Herian, RSP

Heavily oiled, emaciated penguin rescued on March 23rd. Photo by Katrine Herian

The timing of this oil spill also was disastrous for the penguins because they were just completing their annual molts (during which they fast for 2-3 weeks), and were already extremely thin to begin with. Before the Svitzer Singapore arrived with 20 tons of frozen sardines, islanders fished for local fish to feed the penguins – and even donated all of the fish in their personal freezers to the cause. According to the latest reports, the islanders are doing a wonderful job washing the penguins and nursing them back to health under the direction of the professional rescue teams. For more on the recent updates, you can read last week’s article from BirdLife International Community, titled Wash and dry for rockhoppers at rehab center. This page from the official Tristan da Cunha website also has updated reports: Seabird Rehabilitation on Tristan da Cunha main island.

Islanders cutting up fish they had caught to feed the oiled penguins.

Islanders cutting up fish they had caught to feed the oiled penguins.

So several questions remain; How many penguins died on the islands or at sea before they could be collected or counted? How many of the rescued penguins will survive, and how many will continue to breed after being rehabilitated and released? How will this oil spill impact the future survival of this endangered species? How will it affect the local ecology of this island group? Will the oil enter the food chain, thus affecting the penguins and other seabirds further? At this point, the local lobster fishery has been shut down due to oil contamination. This fishery is the primary source of income for the 270 islanders living on Tristan da Cunha. How will this oil spill impact the islanders as well?

Until the penguins return in August for the next breeding season, we won’t realize the full impact of this oil spill. Even then, we still won’t have all of the answers to these questions. But, when they do return (after spending months feeding at sea in preparation for the breeding season), conservation officers on the islands will be able to conduct nest counts, which should give us some indication of how many penguins might have been lost that were not accounted for at this time. To fully understand the long-term impact the MS Oliva oil spill will have on this pristine region, and on the endangered Northern Rockhopper penguins, will require long-term monitoring. This project will require a great deal of funding – and it will not be covered by the ship’s insurers.

Hand-feeding a thin, oiled Rockhopper penguin at Tristan da Cunha. Photo by Estelle van der Merwe

Hand-feeding a thin, oiled Rockhopper penguin at Tristan da Cunha. Photo by Estelle van der Merwe

The following organizations have set up special fundraisers for the rescue, rehabilitation and future monitoring of the Rockhopper penguins at Tristan da Cunha. PLEASE DONATE GENEROUSLY TO HELP THE PENGUINS! Thank you!

The Ocean Doctor (Dr. David Guggenheim)http://oceandoctor.org/ (Click on the green ‘donate now’ button in the right-hand column.) Or go to this link:Nightingale Island Disaster Penguin and Seabird Rescue Fund

Royal Society for the Protection of BirdsNightingale Island Emergency Appeal

Foundation for Antarctic ResearchCatastrophic Oil Spill – Tristan


Dyan deNapoli (The Penguin Lady) – author of The Great Penguin Rescue

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For those who have not seen this video yet, it’s worth posting again. (And I finally seem to have figured out the code issue, so hopefully the screen shot will remain visible this time around.) Andrew Evans, a National Geographic Traveler Digital Explorer, was onboard the MV Explorer when the MS Oliva hit Nightingale Island in the Tristan da Cunha island group. The Explorer arrived one week after the Oliva broke apart and sank, spilling it’s fuel oil and cargo of soya beans. It had been Andrew’s lifelong dream to visit Tristan da Cunha. While there, he took this short video of oil-soaked Rockhopper penguins and coughing baby fur seals – it is heart wrenching stuff. This is not the Tristan he had hoped to see.

To read Andrew’s blog posts about his travels, click here. (This will bring you to one of his posts about Nightingale Island.)

There are just 100 islanders and a handful of penguin rescue experts carrying out the massive rescue operation currently underway at Tristan da Cunha. They currently have 3,600 oiled penguins under their care, and another 1,500 clean penguins captured that they plan to transport away from the oil-contaminated waters. But they need financial assistance to keep this critical rescue effort going. You can help save these endangered penguins by donating to one of the following groups. (Your gift is tax-deductible and will be transferred directly to the islands.)

Please give generously!! Thank you!

The Ocean Doctor (Dr. David Guggenheim) via The Ocean Foundation:  http://oceandoctor.org/ (Click on the green ‘donate now’ button in the right-hand column.) Or go to this link: Nightingale Island Disaster Penguin and Seabird Rescue Fund


RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds): Nightingale Island Emergency Appeal


Foundation for Antarctic Research (via Crowdrise): Catastrophic Oil Spill – Tristan


Dyan deNapoli (The Penguin Lady) – author of The Great Penguin Rescue

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When the MS Oliva slammed into Nightingale Island on Wednesday, March 16th, spilling 300,000 gallons of fuel oil that oiled thousands of endangered penguins, one would have thought the world would have stood up and taken notice. But this tiny island, which is part of the Tristan da Cunha island group lying halfway between South Africa and South America, is so small and so remote that most people have never even heard of it. There are no people living on this 1.5 square mile speck of land – however, Nightingale and the few other tiny islands that make up this island group are inhabited by millions of seabirds, including the Northern Rockhopper penguin. Nearby Tristan da Cunha is the most isolated inhabited island on the planet – just 265 people live there.

Map of Tristan da Cunha islands

Map of Tristan da Cunha islands

Perhaps if this oil spill had occurred in a more populated region, more people would have heard about it. Or, for those of us living in the US, if the spill had occurred in US waters, it might have been in our newspapers and on our nightly news. Perhaps if there were not other earth-shattering events occurring at the same time (Japan, Libya, etc), news of this environmental disaster would have made it into the headlines. Perhaps if it was a story about people or a war, and not about a bunch of birds, it might have attracted the attention of mainstream media. Perhaps. But it was none of these things – and so it has been eclipsed by other ‘more important’ news stories.

But that finally changed this weekend, when the story was picked up by a few major news outlets – in particular CNN, who ran the story yesterday on their website and television network. This headline ran on their website on April 3rd: Penguin rescue operation under way after South Atlantic oil spill.

We have Dr. David Guggenheim (the Ocean Doctor) to thank for making this happen. Dr. Guggenheim just happened to be on a ship travelling to Tristan da Cunha when this oil spill occurred. It had been his life-long dream – since the age of eleven – to see penguins in the wild. He could never have imagined that, instead of seeing lively Rockhoppers bouncing from rock to rock, he would see them hunkered down by the shoreline, their bodies encased in thick, black oil. Even the plumes of feathers above their eyes that are normally bright yellow and partially erect, were solid black and plastered to the sides of their heads.

 

Heavily oiled Rockhopper penguin on Nightingale Island. Photo by Andrew Evans
Oiled Rockhopper penguin on Nightingale Island. Photo by Andrew Evans

On his journey throughout the southern oceans, Dr. Guggenheim had been regularly blogging and video conferencing with students in their classrooms. Had he not been at Tristan da Cunha at just the right time, with just the right technology, and just the right passion for our oceans, we still might not know about the MS Oliva oil spill and its impact on the penguins and other animals there. Also fortuitously – or miraculously, some might say – the crew of the ship he was travelling on (the Prince Albert II) had been trained in high-seas rescues, and they were able to rescue the 22-man crew from the MS Oliva before it broke apart and sank.

Prince Albert II crew members rescuing crew from the MS Oliva. Photo by Kristine Hannon

Prince Albert II crew members rescuing crew from the MS Oliva. Photo by Kristine Hannon

Because Dr. Guggenheim was on the scene and began posting about it right away, word began to spread about this latest penguin crisis. At least in online communities. Were it not for social media, who knows how long it might have been before we learned of it here in the states, or in other parts of the world. And yesterday afternoon – at long last – CNN interviewed Dr. Guggenheim about the oil spill on one of their international news programs. The clip from that broadcast can be seen here: Dr. David Guggenheim on CNN.

Now, perhaps, more media outlets will take notice. And we need them to. Although the ship’s insurers will eventually be forced to pay for the rescue efforts, until then, rescue workers on the islands are in desperate need of supplies and funding. Just 100 islanders and a few penguin specialists are caring for thousands of penguins that have been rescued from the oil spill. Of the estimated 10,000-20,000 penguins that have been oiled, a few thousand have been captured. The size and scope of the task they face is truly daunting. You can help the islanders save their penguins by making a donation through one of the organizations listed below. All of the funds raised go directly to the islands to support the penguin rescue effort currently underway.

Rescue worker feeding Rockhopper penguin at Tristan. Photo via CNN

Rescue worker feeding Rockhopper penguin at Tristan. Photo via CNN

The Ocean Foundation fundraiser (set up by the Ocean Doctor): Nightingale Island Disaster Penguin and Seabird Rescue Fund

Crowdrise fundraiser (set up by Sandra Birnhak, Director of the Foundation for Antarctic Research): Catastrophic Oil Spill – Tristan

RSPB fundraiser (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds): Nightingale Island Emergency Appeal

Please donate as generously as you can! These penguins were just declared an endangered species in 2008, and your help is needed to keep their fragile population viable. I will be posting another update about the current state of the rescue effort – but for now, you can learn more by reading the CNN article.

Thank you!

Dyan deNapoli (The Penguin Lady) – Penguin expert and author of The Great Penguin Rescue

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Wow, where to start? It’s been a whirlwind week. I’ve been away since Friday – thus the radio silence for the last several days – and I’m turning right around to hit the road again for a number of author appearances this week. I’ll be on the road until Saturday, so please forgive the lack of updates during the coming week. Although I will do my best to post from the road, time and internet access may make it a bit challenging. O.K., enough about that – now on the important stuff, and the real reason why you (and I) are here.

There is both good news and bad news coming from the Tristan da Cunha islands. The good news is that a ship carrying supplies and five experienced penguin rehabilitators from SANCCOB has FINALLY left Cape Town. More than a week was lost jumping through several political hoops before they got permission to sail to the islands. With every passing day, the penguins are growing weaker from hunger and from the toxic effects of being smothered in oil, so time is of the essence.  The ship is carrying frozen fish and penguin washing supplies to the area. But these supplies are limited and the penguins are many. Bad weather is also hampering the rescue efforts – and will likely slow the ship’s progress as well. For more details about this, please see this article in yesterday’s Cape Argus newspaper: Birds rescued from Tristan oil spill. (The Cape Argus site is now all wonky – but this link has a copy of John Yeld’s original article.)

Briefly, here is where things stand: Approximately 1,000 oiled Rockhopper penguins have been rescued, and are being cared for by 100 islanders. Local fishermen have been catching fish to feed the penguins until the frozen fish arrives with the long-awaited ship. Another 1,000 or so penguins that have not yet been oiled have been corralled to keep them from entering the water and getting oiled. The plan is to transport them far from the oil-polluted waters, and release them into clean waters. Penguins have excellent homing instincts, and hopefully the area will be cleaned of the oil by the time the penguins find their way home.

This same strategy was used very effectively once before. During the rescue of African penguins from the Treasure oil spill in June of 2000, 19,506 clean penguins were transported 500 miles away from the oiled waters of Table Bay and released at Cape Recife in Port Elizabeth to swim back to their islands. Which they did in about two week’s time. They arrived just as workers had finished cleaning up the spill. This was a risky experiment at the time – nobody had tried this technique before, but at that point in the rescue, there was no more room to house another 20,000 penguins (on top of the 20,000 oiled penguins already at the rescue centers), and there were not enough people to care for them either. Luckily, their experiment worked. Based on this success, conservation workers proposed utilitzing this strategy in future spills. Which, for better or worse, they now have the opportunity to try again.

(For an animated map of the epic swim made by three of the Treasure penguins from Port Elizabeth to Cape Town, click here.)

Sadly, there are thousands of oiled penguins (an estimated 10,000-20,000) still waiting to be rescued on the Tristan islands. The stark reality is that there just is not the manpower or the resources available to be able to rescue many of these birds. This is truly a devastating blow for the endangered Northern Rockhopper penguin.

Heavily oiled Rockhopper at Tristan. Photo by Andrew Evans

Heavily oiled Rockhopper at Tristan. Photo by Andrew Evans

I must leave shortly, so I apologize for not providing more details in this post. I’m including links to a few sites that should fill in some of the gaps for now. For continued updates on the oil spill rescue and recovery efforts, I recommend the following websites:

The official Tristan da Cunha website about the MS Oliva spill: http://www.tristandc.com/newsmsolivahelp.php

The ACAP website has daily updates: http://www.acap.aq/latest-news/breaking-news-bulk-carrier-ms-oliva-has-run-aground-on-tristans-nightingale-island

The Ocean Doctor (Dr. David Guggenheim): http://oceandoctor.org/

To donate to this vitally important rescue effort, please visit The Ocean Foundation.

Sandra Birnhak is also collecting donations for the rescue effort through her Crowdwise page here.

Please continue to spread the word everyone! And many thanks to all of you for sharing your concern for these beautiful seabirds.

Dyan deNapoli – Penguin expert and author of The Great Penguin Rescue.

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For the last several days, I’ve been closely following the reports of the oil spill that occurred following the grounding of the Greek-managed carrier MS Oliva at Nightingale Island in the Tristan da Cunha territory. For those just reading about this devastating ecological disaster for the first time, this small group of islands, smack dab in the middle of the Southern Atlantic ocean, is home to most of the world’s population of Endangered Northern Rockhopper penguins, as well as millions of other seabirds, including the endangered Speckled petrel. For reasons not yet known, the Oliva was miles off course when it steamed full ahead into the island in the early morning hours of Wednesday, March 16th. Half of the ship’s crew was removed that day and the rest of the crew was rescued on the 17th. Oil first appeared in the water on the morning of Thursday, March 17th.

MS Oliva grounded at Nightingale Island near Tristan da Cunha

MS Oliva grounded at Nightingale Island, Tristan da Cunha. Photo by Andy Repetto

On Friday, March 18th, the ship broke in two in the rough seas, with more oil leaking from the damaged hull. By this point, the oil had surrounded Nightingale Island, where approximately 20,000 Northern Rockhopper penguins are just completing their annual molts. By the next morning, Saturday, March 19th, oil had been spotted up to eight miles offshore, and scores of heavily oiled penguins were coming ashore. By yesterday, Sunday, March 20th, the oil had hit Inaccessible Island, and hundreds more heavily oiled penguins were spotted by local conservation officials. This part of the world is home to approximately 200,000 Endangered Northern Rockhopper penguins. Because they are just finishing molting, the birds are already underweight (they fast while replacing their feathers during their 2-3 week molt), and they are now taking to the sea again to hunt for food.

Heavily oiled Northern Rockhopper penguin at Nightingale Island. Photo by Tristan Conservation Team

Heavily oiled Northern Rockhopper penguin at Nightingale Island. Photo by Tristan Conservation Team

Tragically, this small group of islands is incredibly remote, making a large-scale rescue effort extremely challenging. There is not even a landing strip for airplanes, so the only way to reach the islands is by ship. The closest landmass is South Africa, some 1,700 miles away (to the East). The next closest continent is South America, some 2,300 miles to the West. The voyage to Tristan da Cunha from South Africa takes 4-7 days, depending on the vessel and the weather. There will undoubtedly be tens of thousands of penguins, as well as thousands of other seabirds, oiled in this spill. Getting the necessary resources, as well as enough people to care for the birds out to these islands will prove to be a superhuman endeavor.

Group of oiled Rockhopper penguins at Nightingale Island. Photo by Tristan Conservation Team

Group of oiled Rockhopper penguins at Nightingale Island. Photo by Tristan Conservation Team

A bit of hopeful news – a salvage tug, the Smit Amandla, is due to arrive from Cape Town today, and Estelle van der Merwe, whom I worked under during the massive penguin rescue effort that took place following the Treasure oil spill in South Africa, is onboard. Under her strong leadership, nearly 40,000 African penguins were saved during the Treasure oil spill rescue. Estelle will serve as an advisor to the Tristan da Cunha conservation officials. But the rescue effort at Tristan will undoubtedly be the biggest challenge ever faced by even the most seasoned wildlife rescue professionals.

To follow the daily reports on this oil spill, check the websites listed below. I will also be posting daily updates on my Facebook page.

The Penguin Lady on Facebook

Tristan da Cunha’s official website

Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP)

The Ocean Doctor’s website

SANCCOB’s website

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